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Conversions and Substitutions

Here are several conversion and substitution charts for your perusing. It’s amazing thethings one can substitute!

Have fun!!!

  • 1 teaspoon baking powder = ¼ teaspoon baking soda plus ½ cup buttermilk or ¼ teaspoon baking soda plus 5/8 teaspoon cream of tartar
  • 1 cup sifted cake flour = 7/8 cup sifted all-purpose flour or 1 cup all-purpose flour minus 1-2 tablespoons
  • 1 cup self-rising flour = 1 cup sifted all-purpose flour plus 1½ teaspoons baking powder and ½ teaspoon salt
  • 1 cup all-purpose flour = 1 cup whole wheat flour
  • 1 cup honey = 1 to 1¼ cups sugar plus ¼ cup liquid
  • 2 large eggs = 3 small eggs
  • 1 medium egg = 2 egg yolks plus 1 tablespoon water (for baking)
  • 1 medium egg = 2 egg yolks (in custards or cream fillings)
  • 1 ounce unsweetened chocolate = 1 square or 3 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa powder plus 1 tablespoon butter or margarine
  • 6 squares or 6 ounces semisweet chocolate, melted = 1 cup semisweet chocolate chips, melted
  • 1 tablespoon cornstarch (as thickening) = 2 tablespoons flour or 2 teaspoons quick tapioca or 2 egg yolks
  • 1 teaspoon lemon juice = ½ teaspoon vinegar
  • 1 tablespoon fresh herbs = ½ to 1 teaspoon dried herbs
  • 1 small garlic clove = 1/8 teaspoon garlic powder
  • 1 pound fresh mushrooms = 3 ounces dried or 6 ounces canned
  • 1 cup whipping cream, whipped = 2 cups thawed whipped topping
  • 1 cup whipping cream as liquid = 1/3 cup melted butter plus ¾ cup milk
  • 1 cup light cream = 3 tablespoons melted butter plus ¾ cup milk
  • 1 cup ricotta cheese = 1 cup cottage cheese, liquid drained
  • 1 cup buttermilk = 1 cup plain yogurt, stirred, or 1 tablespoon lemon juice stirred into milk to make 1 cup; let stand 5 minutes to make soured milk for baking only (never use sour milk that’s been in the fridge too long; it’s actually spoiled)
  • 1 cup whole milk = 2 teaspoons melted butter plus 1 cup fat-free milk (or water) or equal parts evaporated milk and water or 1 cup nonfat dry milk plus 2 teaspoons melted butter
  • 1 cup sour cream = 3 tablespoons melted butter stirred into 7/8 cup buttermilk, soured milk or plain yogurt
  • 1 cup sour cream = 1 cup plain yogurt (but it will taste less rich from the missing fat)
  • Pecans = walnuts, almonds or hazelnuts
  • Chunky peanut butter = creamy peanut butter (or grind roasted peanuts in a blender with a little peanut oil)
  • 1 cup bread crumbs = ¾ cup cracker crumbs
  • 1 cup butter = 1 cup margarine or 7/8 cup vegetable oil or 7/8 cup butter-flavored shortening
  • 1 pound lard = 2 cups shortening
  • 1 cup sugar (in baking bread) = 1 cup honey plus a pinch of baking soda
  • 1 cup sugar (in baking) = 7/8 cup honey plus a pinch of baking soda
  • 1 cup sugar (in main dishes) = ¾ cup honey
  • 1 cup brown sugar = 1 cup white sugar plus 2 tablespoons molasses
  • 1 cup molasses (in baking) = 1 cup sugar (omit baking soda; use baking powder)
  • ½ cup dry red wine or white wine = 2 tablespoons sherry or port
  • ¾ cup maple syrup = ¾ cup maple-flavored syrup, corn syrup or 1 cup sugar and increase liquid in recipe by 3 tablespoons
  • 1 teaspoon pumpkin pie spice = ¼ teaspoon nutmeg, ¼ teaspoon ginger, ½ teaspoon cinnamon
  • 1 pound tomatoes = 3 medium or ¾ cup sauce (6 ounces) or ¼ cup paste (2 ounces)
  • 8 ounces tomato sauce = 2/3 cup water plus 1/3 cup tomato paste
  • 3 cups tomato juice = 2½ cups water plus 6 ounces tomato paste plus ¾ teaspoon salt, dash of sugar
  • 1 large marshmallow = 10 mini (dust off cornstarch from their surfaces or it might overload a recipe)
  • 1 cup granulated sugar = 1¾ cups powdered sugar for uses other than baking
  • ¼ teaspoon powdered ginger = 1 teaspoon chopped fresh or 2 teaspoon minced crystallized
  • 1 head fresh dill = 2 teaspoons dill seed
  • 1 tablespoon grated fresh horseradish = 2 tablespoons bottled
  • 1 teaspoon lemon juice = ½ teaspoon vinegar
  • 1 teaspoon dry mustard = 1 tablespoon prepared mustard or ½ teaspoon mustard seeds
  • 1 /4 cup rum = 1 teaspoon rum extract plus liquid to make ¼ cup
  • 1 teaspoon vanilla extract = 1 inch vanilla bean, split and simmered in liquid of recipe
  • 1 cup wine = 13 tablespoons water, 3 tablespoons lemon juice and 1 tablespoon sugar or a little less than 1 cup apple juice plus lemon juice
  • 1 cup dry bread crumbs = 3 to 4 slices bread, torn and blenderized
  • 1 cup sweetened condensed milk = 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons dry milk powder plus ½ cup warm water plus ¾ cup sugar and dissolve
  • ½ teaspoon cream of tartar = 1½ teaspoons lemon juice or vinegar
  • 1 tablespoon maple sugar = 1 tablespoon granulated sugar plus a dash of maple extract

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Temperatures: °Fahrenheit (F) = °Celsius (C)

-10°F =

0°F =

32°F =

50°F =

68°F =

100°F =

150°F =

205°F =

212°F =

300°F =

325°F =

350°F =

375°F =

400°F =

425°F =

450°F =

475°F =

500°F =

-23.3°C (freezer storage)

-17.7°C

0°C (water freezes)

10°C

20°C (room temperature)

37.7°C

65.5°C

96.1°C (water simmers)

100°C (water boils)

148.8°C

162.8°C

177°C (baking)

190.5°C

204.4°C (hot oven)

218.3°C

232°C (very hot oven)

246.1°C

260°C (broiling)

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Conversion Factors

If you need to convert measurements into
their equivalents in another system, here’s how to do it.

ounces to grams:
multiplyounce figure by 28.3 to get number of grams
blankgrams to ounces:
blankmultiply gram figure by .0353 to get number of ounces
pounds to grams:
multiply pound figure by 453.59 to get number of grams
pounds to kilograms:
Multiply pounds by 0.45 to get number of kilograms
ounces to milliliters:
multiply ounce figure by 30 to get number of milliliters
cups to liters:
multiply cup figure by 0.24 to get number of liters
Fahrenheit to Celsius:

subtract 32 from the Fahrenheit figure, multiply by 5, then divide by 9 to get Celsius figure

Celsius to Fahrenheit:
multiply Celsius figure by 9, divide by 5, then add 32 to get Fahrenheit figure
inches to centimeters:
multiply inches by 2.54 to get number of centimeters
centimeters to inches:
multiply centimeter figure by .39 to get number of inches

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Conversion of Measures for Ingredients (USA = Europe)

USA Europe
Flour 1/4 cup 1/2 cup 1 cup 30 GM. 60 GM. 125 GM.
Sugar or Butter 1/4 cup1/2 cup1 cup 60 GM.125 GM.250 GM.
Liquids 1/4 cup1/2 cup3/4 cup1 cup4 cups (1 quart) 5 CL.1.25 DL.1.8 DL.2.5 DL.1 Liter
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